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Table 1 Roles of TNFα in epilepsy

From: The role of the TNFα-mediated astrocyte signaling pathway in epilepsy

Function Refs
Promote hyperexcitability via purinogenic signaling, glutamate release and modulation of neuronal transmitter release [23]
Increase ictal discharges [24]
Modulate glutamate receptor transport [19]
Induce apoptosis [25]