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Table 1 The typical viruses associated with seizures and features of resulting seizures in humans or animal models

From: Special issue on the battle against complex virus world in the human brain: seizure as a result of viral infection

Virus family Typical seizure related virus Seizure features
RNA virus:
Flaviviridae West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, St Louis Encephalitis virus, Dengue viruses (types 1–4), Tick-borne encephalitis virus Generalized tonic-clonic seizures;
Partial motor with secondary generalization;
Non-convulsive and convulsive status epilepticus [3];
Acute flaccid paralysis [4]
Zika virus Early and refractory epilepsy [5]
Bunyaviridae La Crosse virus Complex partial or simple partial focal seizure;
Periodic epileptiform discharges [6]
Orthomyxoviridae Influenza virus Generalized tonic-clonic seizures;
Convulsive status epilepticus [3];
Febrile seizures [7]
Paramyxoviridae Mumps virus Generalized tonic-clonic seizures [3];
Acute flaccid paralysis [4]
Measles virus, Canine distemper virus Generalized tonic-clonic seizures [3]
Nipah virus Convulsive status seizures [8]
Rhabdoviridae Rabies virus Generalized tonic-clonic seizures [3];
Febrile seizure [9];
Focal facial and limb seizures [10];
Acute flaccid paralysis [4]
Chandipura virus Generalized tonic-clonic seizures;
Focal seizure [11]
Retroviridae Human immunodeficiency virus Generalized tonic-clonic seizures;
Partial motor with/without secondary generalization; Atonic seizures;
Non-convulsive and convulsive status epilepticus;
High incidence of recurrence [3]
Picornaviridae Enterovirus 70 Generalized tonic-clonic seizures [3]
Complex partial or simple partial focal seizure [6]
Febrile seizure [12]
Enterovirus 71 Complex partial or simple partial focal seizure [6]
Febrile seizure [12]
Poliovirus Acute flaccid paralysis [4]
Rhinovirus Febrile seizure [12]
Togaviridae Eastern equine encephalitis viruses Complex partial or simple partial focal seizure;
Periodic epileptiform discharges [6]
Reoviridae Rotavirus Febrile seizures [13]
Paramyxoviridae Human parainfluenza viruses Febrile seizures [13]
Coronaviridae Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus Abnormity located in the temporal lobe accompanied with seizures [14];
Refractory status epilepticus [15]
Middle East respiratory syndrome–related coronavirus, Human coronavirus OC43, Human coronavirus HKU1 Febrile seizures [16]
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Focal seizure [17]
Pneumoviridae Respiratory syncytial virus/orthopneumovirus Febrile seizure [12];
Status epilepticus [15]
  Human metapneumovirus Focal seizure;
Status epilepticus [15];
Febrile seizures [13]
Caliciviridae Norovirus Febrile seizures [13]
Astroviridae Astrovirus Febrile seizures [13]
DNA virus:
Herpesviridae Herpes simplex type 1,
Herpes simplex type 2
Generalized tonic-clonic seizures;
Complex partial seizures; Non-convulsive and convulsive status epilepticus [3];
Periodic epileptiform discharges; Complex partial or simple partial focal seizure [6]
Human herpes virus 6 Generalized tonic-clonic seizures [3];
Febrile seizures and hippocampal sclerosis [18];
Often partial seizures, prolonged seizures, and repeated seizures [19]
Cytomegalovirus Generalized tonic-clonic Seizures;
Complex partial seizures;
Non-convulsive and convulsive status epilepticus [3]
Epstein-Barr virus Generalized tonic-clonic seizures;
Complex partial seizures; Non-convulsive and convulsive status epilepticus [3]
Adenoviridae Adenovirus Acute flaccid paralysis [4]
Febrile seizure [12]
Parvoviridae Bocaparvovirus Febrile seizure [12]