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Table 3 Anti-epileptic effects of anti-inflammatory treatments in animal models or patients

From: The role of inflammation in epileptogenesis

Drug Experimental model or clinical patients Anti-epileptic effects Reference
IL-1β/IL-1R signaling
VX-765 (A selective inhibitor of caspase-1/ ICE) KA-induced mice that are refractory to some common anti-convulsant drugs. VX-765 shows anti-
convulsant activities.
Electrical rapid kindling in rats No kindling development after VX-765 treatment. [179]
Drug-resistant focal-
onset epilepsy (adult patients)
The mean percent reduction in seizure rates is 15.6% in the VX-765 group and 7.0% in the control group. [180]
Anakinra (An IL-1R antagonist) Acute phase of febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (children) Reduce the total number of seizures. [45]
Drug-resistant epilepsy (children and adolescents) Attenuate clinical seizure activity. [181]
HMGB1/TLR4 signaling
HMGB1 monoclonal antibody Maximal electroshock seizure-induced acute epilepsy in mice Attenuate MES-induced acute seizures. [182]
PTZ-induced acute epilepsy in mice Attenuate PTZ-induced acute seizures. [182]
KA-induced chronic epilepsy in mice Alleviate the severity of KA-induced chronic epilepsy. [182]
COX signaling
Nimesulide (A COX-2 selective inhibitor) Electrical rapid kindling in mice Attenuate the kindling development. [183]
KA-induced seizures in mice Pre- or post-treatment aggravates KA-induced seizures. [96]
Aspirin (A COX inhibitor) Focal onset epilepsy (adults) Higher dose correlates with fewer seizures. [184]
Sturge–Weber syndrome
(children and adolescents)
In a group of 58 subjects, 91% of them on aspirin have good final seizure scores. [185]
TNF signaling
Adalimumab (An anti-TNF monoclonal
encephalitis (adults)
Decrease seizure frequency in 5 of 11 patients. [64]
IL-6 signaling
Tocilizumab (An IL-6 receptor inhibitor) New-onset refractory SE
SE is terminated in 6 of 7 patients; 2 patients have severe adverse effects. [51]
PMX53 (A C5ar1 antagonist) 6 Hz and corneal kindling epilepsy mouse models Decrease seizure severity and improve seizure threshold. [186]
Minocycline (A microglial activation inhibitor) Drug-resistant focal epilepsy (adults) Reduce seizure frequency. [187]