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Table 1 Neurological and non-neurological diseases associated with epilepsy and the related inflammatory mediators

From: The role of inflammation in epileptogenesis

Disease Inflammatory mediators contributing to epilepsy development Reference
Brain trauma HMGB1, IL-1β, IL-6, TGF-β, CCL2, complement, ROS, albumin, microglia, BBB, T cells [158,159,160,161,162,163,164]
Stroke IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, ICAM, VCAM, CX3CL1, MMP-9, BBB [163, 165,166,167]
Subarachnoid hemorrhage DAMPs, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α [168, 169]
Brain tumors IL-1β, TNF-α, TGF-β, complement, TLRs, COX, PGs, BBB [163, 170]
Alzheimer’s disease IL-6, TNF-α, CXCL8, CCL5, MCP-1(CCL2), ROS, complement [163]
Multiple sclerosis ROS, T cells, B cells, and macrophages [163]
Non-neurological Diseases Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes
(produce antibodies against neuronal intracellular and cell-surface antigens and glial antigens)
Antibodies for LGI 1, CASPR2, NR1, GluR1/GluR2, GABAB, Hu/ANNA-1, Ma2/Ta, GAD65, CV2/CRMP5, and GFAP; T cells; B cells [171, 172]
Systemic lupus
IL-10, IL-1β, IL-8, IFN-γ, BBB [173, 174]
TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6 [163]
Anti-phospholipid syndrome Antibodies against membrane anionic phospholipids [163]
Sjogren’s CD4+ T cells, B cells [163]
Type I diabetes T cells (Encephalitis with antibodies against GAD65), BBB, TNF-α, IL-12, glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies [172, 175, 176]
Celiac disease IL-1β, IL-6, INF-γ, TNF-α, BBB, T cells, anti-endomysial antibodies, anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies, anti-gliadin antibodies [163, 176]
Ulcerative Colitis IL-5, IL-13, IL-15, Th2 cells [163]
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis Anti-thyroid antibodies [163, 176]