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Table 1 Therapeutic effects of rTMS on drug-resistant epilepsy

From: Electromagnetic activity: a possible player in epilepsy

References Sample size Study design Diagnosis Therapy Seizure control
Shon et al. [47] 4 Prospective open-label trial Multidrug-resistant focal epilepsy Ten-day stimulation at a daily dose of 900 pulses of 0.5 Hz Seizure reduction was observed in 3 patients
Gersner et al.[48] 1 Case report Drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy Three courses of stimulation with daily dose of 1800 pulses of 1 Hz Seizure frequency decreased by 50 - 70%
Sun et al. [49] 60 Randomized, single-blind, controlled study Refractory focal epilepsy Two weeks of high-intensity (90% RMT) rTMS treatment Seizures frequency and interictal dischargedecreased significantly compared with baseline
Sun et al. [50] 17 Open-label trial Not obtaining seizure-free after resection of epileptogenic region Two weeks of treatment at a dose of 500 pulses of 0.5 Hz and 90% RMT Seizure frequency decreased by 50%
Santiago Rodriguez et al. [51] 12 Open-label trial Focal neocortical epilepsy Two weeks of rTMS with a dose of 900 pulses of 0.5 Hz (with intensity of 120% RMT) Seizure frequency and interictal spikes decreased significantly
Joo et al. [52] 35 Not mentioned Focal seizure Five consecutive rTMS with an intensity of 100% RMT Interictal epileptogenic discharges decreased significantly while seizure frequency did not
Fregni et al. [53] 21 Randomized, double-blind sham-controlled trial Drug refractory epilepsy Five consecutive treatment sessions of 1200 pulses of 1 Hz Seizure frequency and epileptiform discharges reduced significantly
Kinoshita et al. [54] 7 Not mentioned Medically intractable extratemporal lobe epilepsy A week of low-frequency rTMS at 0.9 Hz (with intensity of 90% RMT) The frequency of all seizure types, complex partial seizures and simple partial seizures decreased significantly (19.1, 35.9 and 7.4%, respectively)
Fregni et al. [55] 8 Not mentioned Refractory epilepsy and malformations of cortical development One session of low-frequency rTMS at a daily dose of 600 pulses of 0.5 Hz Seizure frequency and epileptiform discharges decreased by 50%