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Table 1 Overview of studies correlating the post-surgical outcome with the removal of HFOs

From: High-frequency oscillations detected by electroencephalography as biomarkers to evaluate treatment outcome, mirror pathological severity and predict susceptibility to epilepsy

References Patients Type Patient Population No. of Patients EEG methodology HFOs measurement Correlation
Ochi et al. [44] Children Intractable neocortical epilepsy 9 Subdural grids Ictal R R
Wu et al. [38] Children Drug-resistant epilepsy 24 Subdural grids /strips Interictal FR FR
Akiyama et al. [116] Children Drug-resistant epilepsy 28 Subdural/depth Interictal R and FR R and FR
Nariai et al. [50] Children Epileptic spasms 11 Subdural grids Ictal R and FR R
van Klink et al. [117] All Drug-resistant epilepsy 14 Subdural grids /strips Interictal R and FR FR
Cho et al. [43] All Drug-resistant epilepsy 15 Subdural/depth Interictal R and FR FR
van’t Klooster et al. [42] All Drug-resistant epilepsy 54 Subdural grids /strips Interictal FR FR
Fedele et al. [35] All Drug-resistant epilepsy 54 Subdural grids/strips Interictal R and FR R and FR
Fedele et al. [118] All Drug-resistant focal epilepsy 20 Subdural grids /strips Interictal R and FR R and FR
Fedele et al. [36] All Drug-resistant epilepsy 9 Subdural grids/strips Interictal FR FR
van’t Klooster et al. [65] All Drug-resistant epilepsy 54 Subdural grids/strips Interictal R and FR FR
Cuello-Oderiz et al. [119] All Focal cortical dysplasia 21 Depth Interictal R and FR R and FR
Boran et al. [25] All Drug-resistant epilepsy 22 Subdural grids/strips Interictal FR FR
  1. HFOs High-frequency oscillations, EEG Electroencephalogram, R Ripples, FR Fast ripples