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Table 4 Seizure frequency change in different studies

From: Managing reproductive problems in women with epilepsy of childbearing age

Study Study method Center Number of pregnancies SF increased SF decreased SF unchanged ASM use Reference
EURAP 2013 [72] Prospective Multi (> 30) 3735 15.80% 12.00% 70.50% CBZ LTG VPA PB First pregnancy trimester
EURAP 2006 [78] Prospective Multi (> 30) 1956 17.30% 15.90% 63.60% CBZ OXC LTG VPA PHT PB First pregnancy trimester
Cagnetti 2014 [81] Prospective Single 274 23.40% 17.50% 59.10% CBZ LEV LTG OXC PB VPA Nine months before prepregnancy
Bardy 1987 [85] Prospective Single 154 32.00% 14.00% 54.00% PHT CBZ CZP PRM ESM SLT PB VPA Prepregnancy
Reisinger 2013 [83] Retrospective Single 115 38.30% 17.40% 44.30% LTG LEV CBZ TPM OXC Twelve months before pregnancy
Otani 1985 [86] Prospective Single 110 16.00% 4.00% 80.00% PHT PB PRM CBZ VPA Ten months before pregnancy
Tomson 1994 [84] Prospective Single 89 15.00% 24.00% 61.00% CBZ PHT CLZ ESM PB PRM VPA One month before pregnancy
Gjerde 1988 [87] Prospective Single 78 17.00% 17.00% 67.00% CBZ PHT PB VPA PRM CLZ CLB Prepregnancy
Sabers 2009 [80] Prospective Single 42 19.00% 10.00% 71.00% LTG Prepregnancy
Hoeritzauer 2012 [88] Prospective Single 39 30.80% 17.90% 51.30% LEV Prepregnancy
Pennell 2008 [89] Prospective Single 36 39.00% 33.00% 28.00% LTG Prepregnancy
La Neve 2015 [75] Prospective case control Single 36 (72 control) 19% (11%) 8% (7%) 72% (82%) CBZ VPA Prepregnancy
  1. ASM Antiseizure medication, CBZ Carbamazepine, CLB Clobazam, CLZ Clonazepam, ESM Ethosuximide, LTG Lamotrigine, LEV Levetiracetam, OCB Oxcarbazepine, PB Phenobarbitone, PHT Phenytoin, PRM Primidone, SF Seizure frequency, SLT Sulthiame, TPM Topiramate, VPA Valproate