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Table 1 HMGB1-related findings in patients with epilepsy

From: HMGB1, neuronal excitability and epilepsy

Type of epilepsy Main findings References
FCD ↑HMGB1 expression;
↑TLR2, TLR4, RAGE and IL-1β
Zurolo et al. [17], 2011
FCD type II ↑expression and mRNA levels of cytoplasmic HMGB1, TLR4, IL-1β and TNF-α;
↑translocation of HMGB1 from nucleus to cytoplasm
Zhang et al. [18], 2018
Suspected autoimmune epilepsy ↑CSF HMGB1 Han et al. [19], 2020.
Anti-NMDAR encephalitis ↑CSF HMGB1 Ai et al. [20], 2018
Drug-resistant epilepsy ↑Total serum concentration of HMGB1 Lauren et al. [21], 2018
Drug-resistant epilepsy ↑Total serum concentration of HMGB1 and TLR4 expression Kan et al. [22], 2019
Drug-resistant epilepsy ↑HMGB1 expression and translocation in patients’ brain slices Zhao et al. [23], 2017
  1. ↑ Increased, FCD Focal cortical dysplasia, HMGB1 High mobility group box protein 1, TLR2 Toll-like receptor 2, TLR4 Toll-like receptor 4, RAGE Receptors for advanced glycation end products, IL-1β Interleukin-1β, TNF-α Tumor necrosis factor-α, CSF Cerebrospinal fluid